What Is International Soft Law

One of the main attractions of soft law-making is that it allows non-traditional and non-state actors to participate in the global governance process. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), social movements, the business sector and individuals are more easily integrated into legislation than treaties in which only States can participate. Professor Shelton concluded his presentation by highlighting some of the preliminary conclusions drawn by the ASIL project with regard to soft law. Professor Shelton divided the factors that influence compliance into three different categories: 1) Content; 2) Process; and (3) Institutions. At the international level, there are signs of divergence between States that believe that the soft law path towards better regulation and standards for business should be pursued, and those that want to move as quickly as possible to a strict legal framework for business and the human rights enshrined in the Treaty in order to improve regulation at the national level and access to effective remedies. From a legislative point of view, “soft law” is simply a convenient description of a variety of non-binding normative instruments used in current international relations by States and international organizations. Examples include declarations of the United Nations Conference, properly formulated resolutions and declarations adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations or one of its subsidiary organs or specialized agencies, or codes of conduct, guidelines and principles adopted by any of those Organs of the United Nations. The main advantage of adopting rules and principles in the form of soft law is that the process is simpler, faster and potentially more inclusive than a multilateral treaty. The United Nations has pioneered the application of soft law, including by adopting General Assembly resolutions that, inter alia, interpret and expand the Charter of the United Nations, codify and progressively develop international law, provide evidence of a right of opinion on new general norms and principles, or legitimize State practice. The functions of soft law in the international legal system – and in UN practice – are diverse, but it would be wrong to see the choice of instrument – treaty or soft law – in terms of one or the other. Non-binding soft law sometimes offers alternatives to legislation by contract; At other times, it complements and expands contracts while offering various ways to understand the legal effect of different types of contracts.

But it is inconceivable that modern treaty regimes or international organizations such as the United Nations can function successfully without resorting to non-binding law. As the UK Government`s recent integrated review shows, international law is becoming increasingly difficult in a fragmented international order. * Environment In the field of the environment, soft law generally follows treaties and is used to specify principles that are less clearly defined in the treaty text. In addition, the regionalization of environmental law is generally the result of geographical realities. For example, the Indian Ocean is obviously very different from the Baltic Sea and requires a clear approach to legal governance. Second, the different types of actors – and their motivations – involved in the thematic areas have influenced the creation of soft law mechanisms. For example, international agreements in the areas of environment and trade focused mainly on the regulation of non-State actors. Professor Shelton highlighted some case studies that illustrated the different motives behind the use of soft law: in the case studies examined by the project, soft law was a complement, not an alternative to binding law. Soft law has been used to fill gaps in hard law instruments or to supplement hard law instruments with new standards. There were few examples of stand-alone soft law agreements that were not, in one way or another, linked to strict law. Thirdly, geographical and cultural factors have largely determined the form and function of the various instruments of non-binding law. Agreements adopted by regional institutions such as the OSCE or the OAS have been influenced and shaped by factors other than agreements adopted at the global level by institutions such as the United Nations.

As a result, the regulation of international behaviour through non-binding law – i.e. non-binding instruments such as principles, codes of conduct or declarations – is becoming increasingly important. And states find non-binding legislation increasingly attractive because it entails relatively fewer decision-making costs. In the context of international law, the term “soft law” includes elements such as: The key question is whether this dynamic and inclusiveness can be maintained in the transition from flexible legislation to more binding approaches. Translating non-binding legal standards into binding regimes inevitably involves making difficult decisions, and different stakeholders have different views on where legal boundaries should be drawn, how key terms should be defined and the balance between legal certainty and flexibility. Poor compliance, as seen in APEC environmental standards agreements and World Bank money laundering agreements, has often occurred due to a lack of leadership and commitment among treaty members. Highly respected treaties, such as the Convention on Migratory Species, have been successful because they have retained the efforts of new actors and strengthened normative obligations embedded in the binding aspects of treaties. Compliance with soft law instruments may also change over time, as evidenced by the decrease in the level of compliance with the OSCE-Helsinki agreements and the improvement in the level of compliance with the OAS human rights agreements.

Themes The different topics also had an impact on the scope and content of soft law instruments. The four areas studied used soft law, but to varying degrees and for different purposes. Nevertheless, the use of non-binding legislation continues and its use is unlikely to decrease; It is much more likely to be used on a larger scale, as it also serves as a “testing ground” for innovative new ideas for which policy formulations are still being developed in a world of rapid change and future contentious challenges such as climate change. Another useful aspect of the nature of soft law is that it can often be used to prove opinio juris on the application or interpretation of a contract. Professor Shelton highlighted the common characteristics of the soft law instruments studied. The Chatham House Inclusive Governance Initiative report points out that the proliferation of soft law does not necessarily have to compete with the existing system of hard law as long as soft law solutions do not conflict with or undermine hard law, such as existing contractual provisions. Soft law also lays the foundation for the possibility of a transition to hard law if its principles become widely accepted over time and it is clear that States treat them as legal obligations. And the emergence of a mix of soft and hard legal components in treaties has begun to develop in recent years, such as the Paris Agreement on climate change. Tags: declarations, general principles, treaty, non-binding, resolutions, soft law, United Nations General Assembly Soft law is attractive because it often contains ambitious objectives aimed at the best possible scenarios. .



Der er lukket for kommentarer.