Who Ruled India after Independence

📣 The Indian Express is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel (@indianexpress) and stay up to date with the latest titles In 1973, anti-royalist unrest took place in the Kingdom of Sikkim. In 1975, the Prime Minister of Sikkim called on the Indian Parliament to make Sikkim a state of India. In April of the same year, the Indian army captured the city of Gangtok and disarmed the guards of Chogyal Palace. After that, a referendum was held in which 97.5% of voters supported the abolition of the monarchy and therefore supported the union with India. Sahil M BegThe author is a sub-editor at indianexpress.com. He tweets under <a href=. Read more The long campaign for India`s independence, which began with the Indian Mutiny (1857-59), increased in intensity after World War II (1939-45). Indians increasingly expected self-government to be granted in exchange for their wartime contribution.

But this has led to serious violence between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims. In the 1880s, many of these Indians were frustrated. The British viceroy and his council governed the country. These educated Indians wanted the opportunity to achieve the best jobs in the public sector. They also wanted India to have its own government where men like her would become MPs. The Indian National Congress first presented these ideas in 1885. However, they had little influence on British attitudes. Many British settlers in India had contempt for the Indians and did not believe they were fit to manage their own lands. The British government in London favored certain measures to involve the Indians in the domination over India. However, they were afraid of upsetting their own settlers. Moreover, India was so valuable to Britain that it was reluctant to lose too much control.

Mountbatten confirmed the date of independence to August 15, 1947. As soon as this was announced, the British troops were withdrawn to their barracks. In the weeks leading up to independence, responsibility for the maintenance of law and order was transferred to the Indian Army. In the 1920s and 1930s, British attitudes towards India began to change. This was partly the result of Gandhi`s protests and the work of other nationalist leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru. At the same time, India has ceased to be as important to the British economy as it had been in the past. There was also the fact that Britain gave self-government to the Irish Free State in 1921, which made it even more difficult to deny self-government to India. In the 1920s and 1930s, Britain introduced a series of measures that gave India more and more independence. The number of Indians entitled to vote has been increased. Indians began to sit on the viceroy`s council and also got jobs as ministers in the government. Until 1929, Indians played an important role in the leadership of their country. In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act.

India was divided into self-governing territories, which were to be a united federation on the model of Australia or Canada. However, India did not have the same level of independence as these countries. India`s early years of freedom were marked by the tragic legacy of partition. Refugee resettlement, economic disruption and insufficient resources for virtually all needs, ongoing communal conflicts (with more than 10% of India`s population remaining Muslim) and, a few months after independence, the outbreak of an undeclared war with Pakistan over Kashmir were just some of the greatest difficulties facing the new regime. Lord Mountbatten remained in New Delhi to serve as India`s first new Governor-General, mostly ceremonial work, while Nehru became the first prime minister to assume responsibility for the responsible government of free India, leading a congressional cabinet whose second most powerful figure was Patel. In 1900, India was part of the British Empire; but by the end of 1947, India had gained its independence. On 26 September, the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution. In November 1949, the Constitution of India was drafted by a committee headed by Dr. .B. R. Ambedkar. India became a sovereign democratic republic after its constitution came into force on January 26, 1950.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first president of India. The three words “socialist,” “secular,” and “integrity” were later added with the 42nd Amendment of 1976. Clement Attlee, Prime Minister, when India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru died on 27 May 1964 and Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded him as Prime Minister. In 1965, India and Pakistan again entered the war for Kashmir, but without any final result or change on the Kashmir border. The Tashkent Agreement was signed under the mediation of the Soviet government, but Shastri died the night after the signing ceremony. A leadership election led to the elevation of Indira Gandhi, nehru`s daughter, who had been Minister of Information and Broadcasting, to the third prime minister. He defeated right-wing leader Morarji Desai.

The Congress Party won a reduced majority in the 1967 elections due to widespread disappointment with rising commodity prices, unemployment, economic stagnation and the food crisis. Indira Gandhi had started with a stony note after agreeing to a devaluation of the rupee, which caused a lot of difficulties for Indian businesses and consumers, and the import of wheat from the United States failed due to political disputes. [43] Concerns and controversies surrounding the 2010 Commonwealth Games rocked the country in 2010 and raised questions about the government`s credibility, followed by the case of 2G spectrum and Adarsh Housing Society fraud. In mid-2011, Anna Hazare, a prominent social activist, began a 12-day hunger strike to protest state corruption in Delhi after the government`s proposals to strengthen anti-corruption legislation failed to meet her demands. [52] India has waged a total of four military wars/conflicts with rival Pakistan, including two during this period. In the 1947 Indo-Pakistani War, fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, Pakistan conquered one-third of Kashmir (which India claims as its territory) and India conquered three-fifths (which Pakistan claims as its territory). During the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War, India attacked Pakistan on all fronts by crossing the international border after Pakistani troops attempted to infiltrate Indian-controlled Kashmir by crossing the de facto Indo-Pakistani border into Kashmir. The question of the status of power has been the subject of discussion since the time of the First World War. In 1927, at the Madras session, in response to its objection to the Simon Commission (since it did not have a single Indian member), the Indian National Congress decided to form a committee to draft a constitution for India. The committee`s mandate was simple: it was to “examine and determine the principles of the Indian Constitution as well as the problem of communitarianism and the question of dominion status.” Legal historian Rohit De writes in his research paper “Between midnight and republic: Theory and practice of India`s Dominion status”: “Despite the rise of radical and revolutionary politics and the growing power of socialists within the Congress Party, the national leadership has sought to find common ground.” The 1928 All-Party Conference reached a consensus that, even if independence were their goal, they would not agree on “higher ground” than dominion status. In January 2004, Prime Minister Vajpayee recommended the early dissolution of the Lok Sabha and the general elections. The Congress-led alliance won a surprise victory in the May 2004 elections.

Manmohan Singh became prime minister after Congress Speaker Sonia Gandhi, widow of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, refused to take office to defuse controversy over whether her birth abroad should be considered a disqualification for the post of prime minister. The Congress formed a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance with socialist and regional parties and enjoyed the support of India`s communist parties. Manmohan Singh was the first Sikh and non-Hindu to hold the most powerful position in India. Singh pursued economic liberalization, although the need for support from Indian socialists and communists prevented further privatization for some time. [74] [75] Moreover, the British withdrawal from other parts of the Empire was clearly seen as a precedent. This accelerated their own demands for independence. The “princely states of India,” which were not directly governed by the British, had a choice of which country they wanted to join. States whose princes have not joined either country or chosen a country contrary to their majority religion, such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, have become the centre of bitter disputes.

One of the reasons the British were reluctant to leave India was that they feared that India would break out into a civil war between Muslims and Hindus. The country was deeply divided along religious lines. In 1946-47, as independence approached, tensions turned into terrible violence between Muslims and Hindus. In 1947, the British withdrew from the area and it was divided into two independent countries – India (mainly Hindu) and Pakistan (mainly Muslim). About 2 million people fled their homes to areas of Pakistan or India where they would not be a minority, violence continued for some time after the final partition, and there were disputes over the territory between the two newly created countries. Jawaharlal Nehru became India`s first prime minister and a key force in making the country a stable and democratic state. The movement for India`s independence gained momentum in the early 20th century, and after World War I, Gandhi organized the first of his many effective passive resistance campaigns to protest Britain`s oppressive regime in India. .

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